Explain how doping produces a p-type semi-conductor from pure semi-conductor
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A group to three atom (Boron, Indium)- acceptor atom, is used as an impurity to bond covalently in the lattice of a pure semi-conductor (Silicon). Of the four electrons of silicon, three are used to bond with three electrons of Boron, leaving one electron unbounded. There’s thus a hole created, with silicon, which contributes for bonding with Boron, thus holes become majority charge carriers. This results to a semi-conductor called p-type (extrinsic semi-conductor)
Silicon or a germanium is doped by a group 3 atom where all of them bond leaving a hole as a majority carrier hence p type
A trivalent atom is used in doping. Only 3 electrons will participate in the bonding leaving a hole in the fourth electron of the silicon that is to bond. Holes become the majority charge carriers
P-type semiconductor is achieved by doping an impure semiconductor by use of a trivalent atom like Boron, Gallium or Indium. The three outermost electrons will participate in bonding leaving a hole which will be used as a charge carrier.